rytm_Current_Folio_10Q

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-Q


 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 001-38223


RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


 

 

Delaware

46‑2159271

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

 

222 Berkeley Street

12th Floor

Boston, MA 02116

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(857) 264‑4280

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

N/A

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

RYTM

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (Nasdaq Global Market)


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No  .

 

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of July 25, 2019 was 34,515,042.

 

 

Table of Contents

RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

FORM 10-Q

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Page No.

PART I 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

26

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

26

 

 

 

 

PART II 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

27

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

27

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

27

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

84

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

84

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure

 

84

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. Other Information

 

84

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6. Exhibits

 

85

 

 

 

SIGNATURES 

 

86

 

2

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PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.Financial Statements

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2019

    

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

63,118

 

$

49,542

Short-term investments

 

 

132,049

 

 

202,519

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

8,334

 

 

6,628

Total current assets

 

 

203,501

 

 

258,689

Property and equipment, net

 

 

3,901

 

 

1,120

Right-of-use asset

 

 

3,085

 

 

 —

Restricted cash

 

 

401

 

 

401

Total assets

 

$

210,888

 

$

260,210

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

  

 

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Accounts payable

 

$

6,565

 

$

7,640

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

19,146

 

 

5,942

Lease liability

 

 

379

 

 

 —

Total current liabilities

 

 

26,090

 

 

13,582

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Lease liability

 

 

3,331

 

 

 —

Deferred rent

 

 

 —

 

 

372

Total liabilities

 

 

29,421

 

 

13,954

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

  

 

 

  

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value: 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Common stock, $0.001 par value: 120,000,000 shares authorized; 34,497,542 and 34,410,725 shares issued and outstanding June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively

 

 

34

 

 

34

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

437,805

 

 

430,824

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(256,372)

 

 

(184,602)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

181,467

 

 

246,256

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

210,888

 

$

260,210

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

3

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Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three months ended June 30, 

 

Six months ended June 30, 

 

    

    

2019

    

2018

 

2019

    

2018

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

$

35,308

 

$

8,584

 

$

58,069

 

$

20,870

Selling, general, and administrative

 

 

 

8,841

 

 

6,437

 

 

16,600

 

 

11,152

Total operating expenses

 

 

 

44,149

 

 

15,021

 

 

74,669

 

 

32,022

Loss from operations

 

 

 

(44,149)

 

 

(15,021)

 

 

(74,669)

 

 

(32,022)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Interest income, net

 

 

 

1,353

 

 

609

 

 

2,899

 

 

1,151

Total other income:

 

 

 

1,353

 

 

609

 

 

2,899

 

 

1,151

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

 

$

(42,796)

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(71,770)

 

$

(30,871)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

 

$

(42,796)

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(71,770)

 

$

(30,871)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

 

$

(1.24)

 

$

(0.52)

 

$

(2.08)

 

$

(1.12)

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

 

34,452,661

 

 

27,960,664

 

 

34,435,023

 

 

27,624,271

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

 

 

 

 

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Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Common Stock

 

Paid-In

 

Accumulated

 

Stockholders’

 

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance at December 31, 2018

 

34,410,725

 

$

34

 

$

430,824

 

$

(184,602)

 

$

246,256

Stock compensation expense

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

2,644

 

 

 —

 

 

2,644

Issuance of common stock in connection with ESPP

 

12,105

 

 

 —

 

 

295

 

 

 —

 

 

295

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options

 

7,811

 

 

 —

 

 

54

 

 

 —

 

 

54

Change in unrealized loss on marketable securities

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

214

 

 

 —

 

 

214

Net loss

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(28,974)

 

 

(28,974)

Balance at March 31, 2019

 

34,430,641

 

 

34

 

 

434,031

 

 

(213,576)

 

 

220,489

Stock compensation expense

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

3,272

 

 

 —

 

 

3,272

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options

 

66,901

 

 

 —

 

 

465

 

 

 —

 

 

465

Change in unrealized loss on marketable securities

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

37

 

 

 —

 

 

37

Net loss

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(42,796)

 

 

(42,796)

Balance at June 30, 2019

 

34,497,542

 

$

34

 

$

437,805

 

$

(256,372)

 

$

181,467

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2017

 

27,284,140

 

$

27

 

$

255,013

 

$

(110,252)

 

$

144,788

Stock compensation expense

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

958

 

 

 —

 

 

958

Shares issued for license agreement

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

4,448

 

 

 —

 

 

4,448

Change in unrealized loss on marketable securities

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(77)

 

 

 —

 

 

(77)

Net loss

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(16,459)

 

 

(16,459)

Balance at March 31, 2018

 

27,284,140

 

 

27

 

 

260,342

 

 

(126,711)

 

 

133,658

Stock compensation expense

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,516

 

 

 —

 

 

1,516

Shares issued for license agreement

 

223,544

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Issuance of common stock upon completion of public offering, net of offering costs

 

6,591,800

 

 

 7

 

 

163,027

 

 

 —

 

 

163,034

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options

 

73,653

 

 

 —

 

 

399

 

 

 —

 

 

399

Change in unrealized loss on marketable securities

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

122

 

 

 —

 

 

122

Net loss

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(14,412)

 

 

(14,412)

Balance at June 30, 2018

 

34,173,137

 

$

34

 

$

425,406

 

$

(141,123)

 

$

284,317

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

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Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six months ended June 30, 

 

    

2019

    

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(71,770)

 

$

(30,871)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Non-cash research and development license expense

 

 

 —

 

 

4,448

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

5,916

 

 

2,474

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

452

 

 

122

Non-cash rent expense

 

 

253

 

 

(40)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(4,048)

 

 

(833)

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

12,273

 

 

569

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(56,924)

 

 

(24,131)

Investing activities

 

 

  

 

 

  

Purchases of short-term investments

 

 

(69,875)

 

 

(20,409)

Maturities of short-term investments

 

 

142,687

 

 

57,463

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(3,126)

 

 

(10)

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

69,686

 

 

37,044

Financing activities

 

 

  

 

 

  

Net proceeds from issuance of common stock

 

 

 —

 

 

163,034

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

 

 

519

 

 

326

Proceeds from issuance of common stock from ESPP

 

 

295

 

 

 —

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

814

 

 

163,360

Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

13,576

 

 

176,273

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

 

49,943

 

 

34,461

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

 

$

63,519

 

$

210,734

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

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Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(In thousands, except share and per share information)

1. Nature of Business

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company” or “we”), is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapeutics for the treatment of rare genetic disorders that result in severe, life‑threatening metabolic disorders. The Company's lead product candidate is setmelanotide (“RM‑493”), which is a potent, first‑in‑class, melanocortin‑4 receptor, or MC4R, agonist peptide for the treatment of rare genetic disorders of obesity caused by MC4R pathway deficiencies. MC4R pathway deficiencies result in the disruption of satiety signals and energy homeostasis in the body, which, in turn, leads to intense feelings of hunger and to obesity. The Company is currently evaluating setmelanotide for the treatment of six single gene related, or monogenic, MC4R pathway deficiencies: pro‑opiomelanocortin, or POMC, leptin receptor, or LEPR, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous, and POMC epigenetic disorders for which there are currently no effective or approved treatments.  The Company believes that the MC4R pathway is a compelling target for treating these genetic disorders because of its critical role in regulating appetite and weight by promoting satiety and weight control, and that peptide therapeutics are uniquely suited for activating this target.

In March 2018 the Company acquired exclusive, worldwide rights from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”) to develop and commercialize T-3525770 (now “RM-853”). RM-853 is a potent, orally available ghrelin o-acyltransferase (“GOAT”) inhibitor currently in preclinical development for Prader-Willi Syndrome (“PWS”). PWS is a rare genetic disorder that results in hyperphagia and early-onset, life-threatening obesity, for which there are no approved therapeutic options.

Corporate Reorganization

The Company is a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc., and as of October 2015, under the name Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Prior to its organization and a corporate reorganization, the Company was part of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation which was organized in November 2008 and which commenced active operations in 2010. We refer to this corporation as the Predecessor Company.  The Predecessor Company, after consummation of the corporate reorganization, is referred to within these Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements as the Relamorelin Company.

Liquidity

The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception.  As of June 30, 2019, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $256,372.  The Company has primarily funded these losses through the proceeds from the sales of common and preferred stock as well as capital contributions received from the Predecessor Company, the Relamorelin Company and the former parent company, Rhythm Holdings LLC. To date, the Company has no product revenue and management expects operating losses to continue for the foreseeable future. The Company has devoted substantially all of its resources to its drug development efforts, comprising research and development, manufacturing, conducting clinical trials for its product candidates, protecting its intellectual property, pre-commercialization activities and general and administrative functions relating to these operations. The future success of the Company is dependent on its ability to develop its product candidates and ultimately upon its ability to attain profitable operations. At June 30, 2019, the Company had $195,167 of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments on hand.  In the future, the Company will be dependent on obtaining funding from third parties, such as proceeds from the issuance of debt, sale of equity, and funded research and development programs, to maintain the Company's operations and meet the Company's obligations. There is no guarantee that additional equity or other financings will be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to obtain additional funding when needed, the Company would be forced to scale back, terminate its operations or seek to merge with or be acquired by another company.

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Management believes that the Company's existing cash resources will be sufficient to fund the Company's operating plan into the fourth quarter of 2020.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). As permitted under these rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP have been condensed or omitted.

The accompanying interim balance sheet as of June 30, 2019, the statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the statement of stockholders equity and the statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 and the related footnote disclosures are unaudited. In management's opinion, the unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and include all adjustments, which include all normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the interim financial statements. The results for the six months ended June 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the application of certain significant accounting policies as described below and elsewhere in these notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. As of June 30, 2019, there have been no material changes in the Company's significant accounting policies from those that were disclosed in the 2018 Annual Report other than those resulting from the adoption of ASC Topic 842, which is described below. 

 

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and other market‑specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. This process may result in actual results differing materially from those estimated amounts used in the preparation of the financial statements if these results differ from historical experience, or other assumptions do not turn out to be substantially accurate, even if such assumptions are reasonable when made. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing these financial statements include accrued expenses, stock‑based compensation expense, and the valuation allowance on the Company's deferred tax assets.

Principles of Consolidation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Off‑Balance Sheet Risk and Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to significant concentration of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments, which are maintained at two federally insured financial institutions. The deposits held at these two institutions are in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held. The Company has no off‑balance sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements.

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Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an entity about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision‑making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company considers its chief executive officer as its chief operating decision maker.  The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment operating exclusively in the United States.

Fair Value Measurements

 

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.  Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:

 

Level 1 — Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2 — Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

 

The Company’s cash equivalents and marketable securities at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were carried at fair value, determined according to the fair value hierarchy.  See Note 4 for further discussion.

 

The carrying amounts reflected in the consolidated balance sheets for accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.

Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Shareholders

Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for Common Stock equivalents. Net loss attributable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting the net loss of the Company for cumulative preferred stock dividends. During periods of income, the Company allocates participating securities a proportional share of income determined by dividing total weighted average participating securities by the sum of the total weighted average common shares and participating securities (the “two class method”). The Company's convertible preferred stock participates in any dividends declared by the Company and are therefore considered to be participating securities. Participating securities have the effect of diluting both basic and diluted earnings per share during periods of income. During periods of loss, the Company allocates no loss to participating securities because they have no contractual obligation to share in the losses of the Company. Diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of Common Stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the more dilutive of the treasury‑stock and if‑converted methods. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders calculation, convertible preferred stock and stock options are considered to be Common Stock equivalents but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, as their effect would be anti‑dilutive for all periods presented. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same for all periods presented.

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The following table includes the potential common shares, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, that were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

    

    

2019

    

2018

Stock options

 

 

 

3,700,754

 

 

2,616,126

 

Subsequent Events

The Company considers events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date but prior to the issuance of the financial statements to provide additional evidence for certain estimates or to identify matters that require additional disclosure. Subsequent events have been evaluated as required.

Application of New or Revised Accounting Standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

In April 2012, the Jump‑Start Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) was signed into law. The JOBS Act contains provisions that, among other things, reduce certain reporting requirements for an “emerging growth company.” As an emerging growth company, the Company elected to not take advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards, and as a result, will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non‑emerging growth companies.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”).  ASU 2016-18 changes the presentation of restricted cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents will be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning‑of‑period and end‑of‑period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. This amendment is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2018 and has applied its content to statements of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 presented herein.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018‑07, Compensation‑Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”). ASU 2018‑07 expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees.  An entity should apply the requirements of Topic 718 to nonemployee awards except for certain exemptions specified in the amendment.  This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. The Company has early adopted ASU 2018‑07 in July 2018. The guidance has been adopted using the modified-retrospective approach, which requires that unsettled equity-classified awards for which a measurement date has not been established to be measured using the adoption date fair value.  The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company's financial position or results of operations.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”).  ASU 2018-13 removes, modifies and adds to the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. This guidance will become effective in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that reporting period. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of this updated guidance. An entity

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is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of this updated guidance and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date. The Company does not plan to early adopt this ASU, and we are currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract (“ASU 2018-15”).  ASU 2018-15 helps entities evaluate the accounting for fees paid by a customer in a cloud computing arrangement (hosting arrangement) by providing guidance for determining when the arrangement includes a software license. The amendments align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by the amendments.  This guidance will become effective in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. The Company has early adopted ASU 2018‑15 in the fourth quarter of 2018 and the adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company's financial position or results of operations.

Effective January 1, 2019 the Company adopted FASB ASU 2016‑02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016‑02”).  ASU 2016‑02 requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and lease liability for most lease arrangements. The new standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The original guidance required application on a modified retrospective basis with the earliest period presented.  In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Targeted Improvements to ASC 842, which included an option to not restate comparative periods in transition and elect to use the effective date of ASC 842, as the date of initial application of transition, which the Company has elected. In addition, the Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard which allowed us to carry forward the historical lease classification.  As a result of the adoption of ASC 842 on January 1, 2019, the Company recorded both an operating lease right-of-use asset of $3,265 and a lease liability of $3,636.  Additional information and disclosures required by this new standard are contained in Note 5, Right Of Use Asset and Lease Liability.

3. Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses consisted of the following:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2019

    

2018

Research and development costs

 

$

14,113

 

$

2,614

Professional fees

 

 

2,435

 

 

858

Payroll related

 

 

2,356

 

 

2,410

Other

 

 

242

 

 

60

Accrued expenses

 

$

19,146

 

$

5,942

 

 

4. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liability

As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments was $195,167 and $252,061, respectively, which approximates fair value. Cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments includes investments in money market funds that invest in U.S. government securities that are valued using quoted market prices. Accordingly, money market funds and government funds are categorized as Level 1 and had a total balance of $58,615 and $37,019 as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.  The financial assets valued based on level 2 inputs consist of corporate debt securities and commercial paper, which consist of investments in highly-rated investment-grade corporations.

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The following tables present information about the Company's financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicate the level of the fair value hierarchy utilized to determine such fair values:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value Measurements as of

 

 

June 30, 2019 using:

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Equivalents:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Money Market Funds

 

$

58,615

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

58,615

Marketable Securities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities and Commercial Paper

 

 

 —

 

 

132,049

 

 

 —

 

 

132,049

Total

 

$

58,615

 

$

132,049

 

$

 —

 

$

190,664

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value Measurements as of

 

 

December 31, 2018 using:

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Equivalents:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities

 

$

 —

 

$

5,976

 

$

 —

 

$

5,976

Money Market Funds

 

 

37,019

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

37,019

Marketable Securities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities

 

 

 —

 

 

202,519

 

 

 —

 

 

202,519

Total

 

$

37,019

 

$

208,495

 

$

 —

 

$

245,514

 

Marketable Securities

The following tables summarize the Company's marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2019

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Value

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate Debt Securities and Commercial Paper (due within 1 year)

 

$

131,931

 

$

119

 

$

(1)

 

$

132,049

 

 

$

131,931

 

$

119

 

$

(1)

 

$

132,049

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Value

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate Debt Securities (due within 1 year)

 

$

202,653

 

$

23

 

$

(157)

 

$

202,519

 

 

$

202,653

 

$

23

 

$

(157)

 

$

202,519

 

 

 

 

5. Right Of Use Asset and Lease Liability

The Company has a material operating lease for its head office facility and other immaterial operating leases for certain equipment.  Our office lease has a remaining lease term of 6.25 years.  The Company has measured the lease liability associated with the office lease using a discount rate of 10%.  The Company estimated the incremental borrowing rate for the leased asset based on a range of comparable interest rates the Company would incur to borrow an amount equal to the lease payments on a collateralized basis over a similar term in a similar economic environment.  As of June 30, 2019, the Company has not entered into any lease arrangements classified as a finance lease.

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Under ASC 842, the Company determines, at the inception of the contract, whether the contract is or contains a lease based on whether the contract provides the Company the right to control the use of a physically distinct asset or substantially all of the capacity of an asset. Leases with an initial noncancelable term of twelve months or less that do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise are classified as short-term leases.  The Company has elected as an accounting policy to exclude from the consolidated balance sheets a ROU asset and lease liability for short-term leases. 

The Company’s office lease includes both lease and non-lease components.  Non-lease components relate to real estate taxes, insurance, operating expenses and common area maintenance, which are usually billed at actual amounts incurred proportionate to the Company’s rented square feet of the building.  These non-lease components are expensed by the Company as they are incurred and are not included in the measurement of the lease liability.

The Company’s corporate headquarters is located in Boston, Massachusetts.  This facility houses the Company’s research, clinical, regulatory, commercial and administrative personnel.  In August 2018, the Company amended its existing lease agreement and the new lease term commenced May 2019 and has a term of six years with a five-year renewal option to extend the lease. As of January 1, 2019, the Company has not included the five-year renewal option to extend the lease in its measurement of the ROU asset or lease liability. Rent expense, or operating lease costs, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, was $177, $54, $353 and $107, respectively.

Supplemental cash flow information related to the Company’s lease for the six months ended June 30, 2019, includes cash payments of $100 used in the measurement of our operating lease liability.

The following table presents the maturities of the Company’s operating lease liability related to office space as of June 30, 2019, all of which is under a non-cancellable operating lease:

 

 

 

 

Remainder of 2019

 

$

325

2020

 

 

786

2021

 

 

802

2022

 

 

818

2023

 

 

834

Thereafter

 

 

1,353

Total operating lease payments

 

 

4,918

Less: imputed interest

 

 

1,208

Total operating lease liability

 

$

3,710

 

 

6. Common Stock

On April 3, 2018, in association with the Takeda license agreement, the Company issued 223,544 shares of common stock.  See Note 7 for further discussion.

On June 25, 2018 the Company completed a public offering of 6,591,800 shares of common stock at an offering price of $26.42 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 859,800 additional shares of common stock. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $174,155 or net proceeds of $162,878 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.

7. Significant Agreements

License Agreements

In March 2018, the Company entered into a license agreement with Takeda, for the rights of a program that includes the clinical candidate RM-853, which is a GOAT inhibitor, which is currently in preclinical development for PWS.  Pursuant to the license agreement the Company was required to pay a non‑refundable and non‑creditable signing fee, which the Company settled by issuing on April 3, 2018, 223,544 shares of common stock valued at $4,448.  Under

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the terms of the license agreement, assuming that RM-853 is successfully developed, receives regulatory approval and is commercialized, the Company is also required to pay up to $70,000 in one‑time, non‑refundable development milestone payments upon the  achievement of certain clinical and regulatory milestones. The Company is also required to pay up to $70,000 in one‑time, non‑refundable, non‑creditable sales milestone payments upon the achievement of certain sales levels.  The Company is also required to pay to Takeda, mid to mid‑high single digit royalties (subject to certain potential reductions over time), on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis of annual net sales, of each product in such country, beginning on the first commercial sale of a product in such country, and continuing until the latest of (i) 10 years after the date of first commercial sale of such product in such country; or (ii) the expiration of the last to expire valid claim of a Takeda patents covering the composition or use of such product in such country; or (iii) the expiration of all regulatory exclusivity for such product in such country. The Company recorded the fair value of the common stock to be issued to the licensors as research and development expense, as the license does not have a future alternative use, in accordance with ASC Topic 730, Research and Development.        

 

 

8. Related‑Party Transactions

Expenses paid directly to consultants and vendors considered to be related parties amounted to $492, $504, $1,088 and $976 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Outstanding payments due to these related parties as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were $148 and $260, respectively, and were included within accounts payable on the balance sheet.

9. Income Taxes

For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company did not have a current or deferred income tax expense or benefit as the entity has incurred losses since inception and has provided a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets.

 

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Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition to historical information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including statements regarding our financial performance, including our expectations regarding our existing cash, operating losses, expenses and sources of future financing; statements regarding our ability to hire and retain necessary personnel; statements regarding patient enrollments and the timing thereof; statements regarding the timing of announcements regarding results of clinical trials; statements regarding our ability to protect our intellectual property; statements regarding our ability to negotiate our collaboration agreements, if needed; statements regarding our marketing, commercial sales, and revenue generation; and other statements identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “likely,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms include forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are not promises or guarantees of future performance, and are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated in such forward-looking statements. These factors include those set forth in Part II, Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors. We discuss factors that we believe could cause or contribute to these differences below and elsewhere in this report, including those set forth in Part II, Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. 

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapeutics for the treatment of rare genetic disorders that result in severe, life‑threatening metabolic disorders. Our lead peptide product candidate is setmelanotide, a potent, first‑in‑class melanocortin-4 receptor, or MC4R, agonist for the treatment of rare genetic disorders of obesity. We believe setmelanotide, for which we have exclusive worldwide rights, has the potential to serve as replacement therapy for the treatment of MC4R pathway deficiencies. MC4R pathway deficiencies result in the disruption of satiety signals and energy homeostasis in the body, which, in turn, leads to intense feelings of hunger and to obesity.  Our development efforts are initially focused on obesity related to six single gene-related, or monogenic, MC4R pathway deficiencies, pro-opiomelanocortin, or POMC, leptin receptor, or LEPR, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous and POMC epigenetic disorders for which there are currently no effective or approved treatments. We believe that the MC4R pathway is a compelling target for treating these genetic disorders because of its critical role in regulating appetite and weight by promoting satiety and weight control, and that peptide therapeutics are uniquely suited for activating this target.

We have demonstrated proof of concept in Phase 2 clinical trials in POMC deficiency obesity, LEPR deficiency obesity, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome, four genetic disorders of extreme and unrelenting appetite and obesity, in which setmelanotide dramatically reduced both weight and hunger.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has acknowledged the importance of these results by giving setmelanotide Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of obesity associated with genetic defects upstream of the MC4R in the leptin melanocortin pathways.  The Breakthrough Therapy designation currently covers indications for: POMC deficiency obesity, LEPR deficiency obesity, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström Syndrome.  Setmelanotide is currently in Phase 3 development for POMC deficiency obesity, LEPR deficiency obesity, Bardet-Biedl and Alström syndrome.  In addition, in June 2018 setmelanotide was designated as PRIority MEdicine, or PRIME, by the European Medicines Agency’s, or EMA, Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP.  We have completed enrollment in the pivotal cohorts for both our POMC deficiency obesity Phase 3 clinical trial and our LEPR deficiency obesity Phase 3 clinical trial.  We expect to report initial Phase 3 data from these trials in the third quarter of 2019, and subsequently plan to file for regulatory approval for these two indications at the end of 2019 or early 2020. 

Additionally, we believe that we have demonstrated proof of concept in our Phase 2 clinical trial in Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome.  Based on discussions with the FDA, we initiated a combined pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial in these indications and began to enroll patients in December 2018. We have an ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in

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POMC heterozygous deficiency obesity and POMC epigenetic disorders.  We reported initial, preliminary results in these additional indications in June 2018, and provided a further update for these indications in March 2019.  In total, approximately 375 obese subjects and patients have been treated with setmelanotide in previous and ongoing clinical trials in which setmelanotide demonstrated statistically significant weight loss with good tolerability.

We have leveraged skilled experts, consultants, contract research organizations, or CROs, and contractors to manage our clinical operations under the leadership and direction of our management. We expect to expand our infrastructure to manage our clinical, finance and commercial operations with a higher proportion of full‑time employees. We have seventy-two employees. Of these employees, forty-seven are engaged in research and development activities, eleven are engaged in pre-commercialization activities and fourteen are engaged in support administration, including business development and finance. In the near‑term, we expect to significantly expand our clinical, commercial and finance personnel, in particular, and will incur increased expenses as a result.

In March 2018 we acquired exclusive, worldwide rights from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, or Takeda, to develop and commercialize T-3525770 (now “RM-853”). RM-853 is a potent, orally available ghrelin o-acyltransferase, or GOAT, inhibitor currently in preclinical development for Prader-Willi Syndrome, or PWS. PWS is a rare genetic disorder that results in hyperphagia and early-onset, life-threatening obesity, for which there are no approved therapeutic options.  We will assume sole responsibility for the global product development and commercialization of RM-853. Takeda received an upfront fee of $4.4 million which we settled in April 2018 with shares of our common stock, and will receive back-end development milestones, and single-digit royalties on future RM-853 sales.  We expect to submit an investigational new drug, or IND, application for RM-853 to the FDA sometime in 2020.

Our operations to date have been limited primarily to conducting research and development activities for setmelanotide. To date, we have not generated any product revenue and have financed our operations primarily through the proceeds received from the sales of common and preferred stock as well as capital contributions from the Predecessor Company, the Relamorelin Company and the former parent company, Rhythm Holdings LLC, or the LLC entity.  On June 25, 2018 we completed our public offering of 6,591,800 shares of common stock at an offering price of $26.42 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 859,800 additional shares of common stock. We received gross proceeds of approximately $174.2 million before deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.  We will not generate revenue from product sales until we successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for setmelanotide, which we expect will take a number of years and is subject to significant uncertainty. We expect to continue to fund our operations through the sale of equity, debt financings or other sources. We intend to build our own marketing and commercial sales infrastructure and we may enter into collaborations with other parties for certain markets outside the United States. However, we may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements as, and when, needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of setmelanotide.

As of June 30, 2019 we had an accumulated deficit of $256.4 million. Our net losses were $42.8 million, $14.4 million, $71.8 million and $30.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses over the foreseeable future. We expect our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

·

continue to conduct clinical trials for setmelanotide;

·

engage contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for the manufacture of setmelanotide for clinical trials and the manufacture of RM-853 for preclinical development;

·

seek regulatory approval for setmelanotide;

·

expand our clinical and financial operations and build a marketing and commercialization infrastructure; and

·

operate as a public company.

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As of June 30, 2019, our existing cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments were approximately $195.2 million. We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will enable us to fund our operating expenses into the fourth quarter of 2020.

Corporate Background and Distribution

We are a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc., and as of October 2015, under the name Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Prior to our organization and a corporate reorganization, we were part of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation which was organized in November 2008 and which commenced active operations in 2010. We refer to this corporation as the Predecessor Company.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of setmelanotide unless and until we receive regulatory approval of setmelanotide.  We cannot predict if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of setmelanotide. Setmelanotide is currently our only product candidate in clinical development, and we may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for setmelanotide or any other product candidate that we decide to pursue in the future.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our drug discovery efforts, and the development of setmelanotide, which include:

·

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including CROs that conduct research and development and preclinical activities on our behalf, and the cost of consultants and CMOs that manufacture drug products for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

·

employee‑related expenses including salaries, benefits, and stock‑based compensation expense;

·

the cost of lab supplies and acquiring, developing, and manufacturing preclinical and clinical study materials; and

·

facilities, depreciation, and other expenses, which include rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and other operating costs.

We expense research and development costs to operations as incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are recorded as prepaid expenses. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

The following table summarizes our current research and development expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

Research and development summary

    

2019

    

2018

    

2019

    

2018

Research and development expense

 

$

35,308

 

$

8,584

 

$

58,069

 

$

20,870

 

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We are unable to predict the duration and costs of the current or future clinical trials of our product candidates. The duration, costs, and timing of clinical trials and development of setmelanotide will depend on a variety of factors, including:

·

the scope, rate of progress, and expense of our ongoing, as well as any additional, clinical trials and other research and development activities;

·

the rate of enrollment in clinical trials;

·

the safety and efficacy demonstrated by setmelanotide in future clinical trials;

·

changes in regulatory requirements;

·

changes in clinical trial design; and

·

the timing and receipt of any regulatory approvals.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of our product candidates would significantly change the costs and timing associated with its development and potential commercialization.

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later‑stage clinical trials. We expect research and development costs to increase significantly for the foreseeable future as our setmelanotide and RM-853 development programs progress. However, we do not believe that it is possible at this time to accurately project total program‑specific expenses to commercialization and there can be no guarantee that we can meet the funding needs associated with these expenses.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling expenses consist of professional fees related to preparation for the eventual commercialization of setmelanotide, if approved, as well as salaries and related benefits for commercial employees, including stock‑based compensation.  As we accelerate our preparation for commercialization and, if it is approved, start to market setmelanotide and as we explore new collaborations to develop and commercialize setmelanotide, we anticipate that these expenses will materially increase.

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock‑based compensation, relating to our full‑time employees.  Other significant costs include rent, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services.

The following table summarizes our current selling, general and administrative expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

Selling, general and administrative summary

    

2019

    

2018

    

2019

    

2018

Selling, general and administrative expense

 

$

8,841

 

$

6,437

 

$

16,600

 

$

11,152

 

We anticipate that our selling, general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support continued and expanding development efforts, potential commercialization of setmelanotide and increased costs of operating as a public company. These increases will likely include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees to outside consultants, lawyers and accountants, compliance with exchange listing and SEC expenses, insurance and investor relations costs, among other expenses.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which we have prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those described in greater detail below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in the notes to our financial statements included in our 2018 Annual Report, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.

Accrued research and development expenses

As part of the process of preparing our financial statements, we are required to estimate the value associated with goods and services received in the period in connection with research and development activities. This process involves reviewing quotations and contracts, identifying services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of the actual cost, or alternatively, the deferral of amounts paid for goods or services to be incurred in the future. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed or when contractual milestones are met. We make estimates of our accrued expenses or prepaid expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at the time those financial statements are prepared. We periodically confirm the accuracy of our estimates with the service providers and make adjustments if necessary. The significant estimates in our accrued research and development expenses include fees paid to CROs, CMOs and consultants in connection with research and development activities.

We accrue our expenses related to CROs, CMOs and consultants based on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to quotes and contracts with CROs, CMOs and consultants that conduct research and development and manufacturing on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. The allocation of CRO upfront expenses for both clinical trials and preclinical studies generally tracks actual work activity. However, there may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the research and development expense. In accruing service fees delivered over a period of time, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust accrued or prepaid expense accordingly. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, if our estimates of the status and timing of services performed differ from the actual status and timing of services performed, it could result in us reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, there have been no material differences between our estimates of such expenses and the amounts actually incurred.

Stock-based compensation

In August 2015, our Board of Directors and our stockholders approved and we adopted the 2015 equity incentive plan, as amended and in effect prior to the closing of our initial public offering (“IPO”), or the 2015 Plan, which we terminated upon consummation of our IPO and replaced with the 2017 equity incentive plan, or the 2017 Plan. The 2017 Plan provides for the grant of incentive and non-qualified stock options and restricted stock and stock grants to employees, consultants, advisors and directors, as determined by the Board of Directors. As of June 30, 2019, we have reserved 6,094,885 shares of common stock under the 2017 Plan.  Shares of common stock issued upon exercise of stock options are generally issued from authorized but unissued shares. The 2017 Plan provides that the exercise price of incentive stock

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options cannot be less than 100% of the fair market value of the common stock on the date of the award for participants who own less than 10% of the total combined voting power of stock, and not less than 110% for participants who own more than 10% of the voting power. Options and restricted stock granted under the 2017 Plan will vest over periods as determined by our Compensation Committee and approved by our Board of Directors.

We estimate the fair value of our stock-based awards to employees and non-employees using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected volatility of our stock, (b) the expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate, and (d) expected dividends. Previously due to the lack of a public market for the trading of our common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, we have based our estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in a similar stage of development as us and that are publicly traded. For these analyses, we have selected companies with comparable characteristics to ours including enterprise value, risk profiles and with historical share price information sufficient to meet the expected life of the stock-based awards. We compute the historical volatility data using the daily closing prices for the selected companies' shares during the equivalent period of the calculated expected term of our stock-based awards. We will continue to apply this process until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own stock price becomes available. We have estimated the expected life of our employee stock options using the "simplified" method, whereby, the expected life equals the average of the vesting term and the original contractual term of the option. The risk-free interest rates for periods within the expected life of the option are based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect during the period the options were granted.  Upon adopting ASU 2018-07, Improvements to Nonemployee Share‑Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718) on July 1, 2018, we elected that unsettled equity-classified awards to nonemployees for which a measurement date has not been established to be measured using the adoption date fair value.

Income taxes

Income taxes have been calculated on a separate tax return basis. Certain of our activities and costs have been included in the tax returns filed by the Relamorelin Company and the LLC entity. Prior to the Corporate Reorganization, our operations were included in the tax returns filed by the Predecessor Company. We have filed tax returns on our own behalf since the Corporate Reorganization.

We account for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, or ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, we recognize the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. As of December 31, 2018, we do not have any uncertain tax positions.

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC 740, which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. We determine our deferred tax assets and liabilities based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, which are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

As of December 31, 2018, we had net operating loss carryforwards to reduce federal and state incomes taxes of approximately $136.2 million and $113.4 million, respectively. If not utilized, these carryforwards begin to expire in 2033. Of the federal net operating loss carryforwards at December 31, 2018, $63.1 million can be carried forward indefinitely.  At December 31, 2018, we also had available research and development tax credits for federal and state income tax purposes of approximately $2.9 million and $0.8 million, respectively. Additionally, as of December 31, 2018, we had federal orphan drug credits related to qualifying research of $4.3 million.  These tax credit carryforwards begin to expire in 2033 for federal purposes and 2028 for state purposes. 

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Utilization of the net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to ownership change limitations that have occurred previously or that could occur in the future, as provided by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, or Section 382, as well as similar state provisions and other provisions of the Code. Ownership changes may limit the amount of net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income and tax, respectively. In general, an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, results from transactions that increase the ownership of 5.0% stockholders in the stock of a corporation by more than 50% in the aggregate over a three-year period.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Change

 

 

    

2019

    

2018

    

$

    

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Research and development

 

$

35,308

 

$

8,584

 

$

26,724

 

311

%

Selling, general, and administrative

 

 

8,841

 

 

6,437

 

 

2,404

 

37

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

44,149

 

 

15,021

 

 

29,128

 

194

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(44,149)

 

 

(15,021)

 

 

(29,128)

 

194

%

Other income, net

 

 

1,353

 

 

609

 

 

744

 

NM

%

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(42,796)

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(28,384)

 

197

%

 

Research and development expense. Research and development expense increased by $26.7 million to $35.3 million in 2019 from $8.6 million in 2018, an increase of 311%. The increase was primarily due to the following:

·

an increase of $12.5 million related to our clinical trials associated with setmelanotide.  We expanded the GO-ID genotyping study and the Phase 2 basket study with new trial sites for both studies, as well as ongoing enrollment in the Phase 3 study of setmelanotide in patients with Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome;

·

an increase of $4.6 million related to translational research and genetic sequencing efforts designed to improve identification of patients with MC4R pathway deficiencies;

·

an increase of $4.8 million primarily related to purchases of setmelanotide active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, for clinical trials,  commercial scale up and pre-IND work for RM‑853; and

·

an increase of  $2.3 million due to the hiring of additional personnel related to community building and education efforts for physicians, care providers and patients who are facing rare genetic disorders of obesity.

Selling, general and administrative expense. Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $2.4 million to $8.8 million in 2019 from $6.4 million in 2018, an increase of 37%. The increase was primarily due to the following:

·

an increase of $1.9 million in employee related costs in connection with the hiring of additional full-time employees to support planned commercial activities, operations and the continued build of finance and human resource functions; and

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·

an increase of $0.2 million in various consulting and professional services related to efforts to drive disease awareness about rare genetic causes of obesity and prepare for the potential commercial launch of setmelanotide in the U.S.  

Comparison of the six months ended June 30,  2019 and 2018

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Change

 

 

    

2019

    

2018

    

$

 

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Research and development

 

$

58,069

 

$

20,870

 

$

37,199

 

178

%

Selling, general, and administrative

 

 

16,600

 

 

11,152

 

 

5,448

 

49

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

74,669

 

 

32,022

 

 

42,647

 

133

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(74,669)

 

 

(32,022)